Name: Calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids deliver more essential fatty acids to the lactating dairy cow

Authors: M.L.Theurer*1E.BlockW.K.Sanchez2M.A.McGuire*

Address: *Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow 83844Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition Group, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ 08543

Abstract: Recent research has focused on the importance of supplying essential fatty acids to the lactating dairy cow. The addition of essential fatty acids, specifically linoleic and linolenic acid, to dairy cow diets has been investigated as a method to increase reproductive efficiency. Rumen bacteria, however, biohydrogenate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids. This is an important issue because it can also lead to milk fat depression when unsaturated fatty acids are fed. The formation of Ca salts has previously been shown to partially protect unsaturated fatty acids from rumenbiohydrogenation. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate feed intake, milk production, and milk composition of cows fed Ca salts of palm fatty acids (CS) compared with those fed Ca salts of palm fatty acids with an increased content of PUFA (CS+PUFA). Nineteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a switchback experiment to determine any differences between CS and CS+PUFA on milk production and composition. This experiment consisted of 3 consecutive periods of 14 d. Treatments were formulated to provide 450 g/d (dry matter basis) of the Ca salt supplement and were mixed with the same basal ration. Milk weights and feed intakes were recorded daily for each cow. Milk samples were collected the last 2 d of each period and analyzed for milk composition and fatty acids. Dry matter intake [28.0 vs. 27.0 kg/d; standard error of the mean (SEM) = 0.4] and milk production (44.4 vs. 44.0 kg/d; SEM = 0.7) were not different between treatments for CS and CS+PUFA, respectively. Milk fat percentage (3.34 vs. 3.22%; SEM = 0.07) and milk protein percentage (2.78 vs. 2.80%; SEM = 0.01) were not different for CS- and CS+PUFA-fed cows. Feeding CS+PUFA reduced the concentration of palmitic acid in milk fat (28.3 vs. 26.8 wt%; SEM = 0.3). Supplementation of CS+PUFA increased the linoleic acid concentration (3.96 vs. 4.61 wt%; SEM = 0.1) of milk fat, indicating that linoleic acid was partially protected from rumen bio hydrogenation. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid were also increased (0.44 vs. 0.52 wt%; SEM = 0.02) when cows consumed CS+PUFA, indicating that some bio hydrogenation did occur. Supplementing CS+PUFA did not alter milk production, milk fat percentage, or dry matter intake when compared with CS. The CS+PUFA supplement supplied more linoleic acid to the small intestine for milk fat synthesis.

Key Words: milk; polyunsaturated fatty acid; milk fat; dry matter intake

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Name: Effect of calcium salts of fatty acids on the nutritive value of diets, feeding behavior, and serum blood

Authors: Ludmila Couto Gomes، Claudete Regina Alcalde، Ulysses Cecato،Gracielle Caroline  Mari،Sérgio Mangano de Almeida Santos،Jessyka Guedes Mazziero

Address: 1Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento em Zootecnia, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine effects of the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) to the concentrate on the intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients and the grazing behavior of lactating Saanen goats. Five multiparous goats in their third lactation and four primiparous goats were used. The animals were distributed into two Latin square designs, which, for the multiparous goats was 5 × 5, with five treatments (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, and 6.0% CSFA); and for the primiparous goats was 4 × 4, with four treatments (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% CSFA). The addition of CSFA to the concentrate of lactating Saanen goats did not influence the time spent grazing, ruminating, or lying for multiparous goats. However, for primiparous goats, for the time spent grazing, there was a negative quadratic effect with the addition of CSFA to the concentrate. The treatments did not affect the intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, non-fiber carbohydrates, or total digestible nutrients for multiparous goats. No effects were observed on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein and the ether extract, which increased the energy values of the diets with 3.5% CSFA. For primiparous goats, no effects were observed on intake or digestibility. Addition of CSFA can be used as an alternative to feed primiparous goats in grassland when the grazing time is a factor limiting intake. Addition of up to 3.5% of CSFA increases the energy value of diets for multiparous goats. These results suggest that calcium salts of fatty acids is an alternative energy supplement to feed lactating goats.

Key Words: dairy goats; grazing behavior; n-alkanes; rumen-inert fat; soybean oil; tropical climate

parameters of lactating Saanen goats grazing on stargrass

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Name: Challenges in enriching milk fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids

Authors: Jennifer Stamey Lanier1 and Benjamin A. Corl2*

Address: *Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow 83844†Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition Group, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ 08543

Abstract: Milk fatty acid composition is determined by several factors including diet. The milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows is low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series. Efforts to change and influence fatty acid
profile with longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have proven challenging. Several barriers prevent easy transfer of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to milk fat including rumen bio hydrogenation and fatty acid esterification. The
potential for cellular uptake and differences in fatty acid incorporation into milk fat might also have an effect, though this has received less research effort. Given physiological impediments to enriching milk fat with polyunsaturated fatty
acids, manipulating the genome of the cow might provide a greater increase than diet alone, but this too may be challenged by the physiology of the cow

Key Words: : Dairy cow, Milk fat, Polyunsaturated fatty acids

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Name: Effect of stearic or oleic acid on milk performance and energy partitioning when fed in diets with low and high rumen-active unsaturated fatty acids in early lactation

Authors: Chen Yanting, Guiling Ma, Joseph H Harrison, Elliot Block

Address:*Department of Animal Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, †
Department of Animal Science, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98731, and ‡
Church and Dwight Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ 08543
1These authors contributed equally to the research.
2 Corresponding author:

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of stearic acid (SA; C18:0) or rumen-protected oleic acid (OA; C18:1 cis-9) on milk performance and energy partitioning of early lactation cows when supplemented in diets with low and high level of rumen unsaturated fatty acids (RUFA). In low RUFA experiment (LRUFA), FA supplement rich in either SA or calcium salts OA was added to a basal diet with a low concentration of RUFA (0.75% vs. 1.4%, LRUFA-SA vs. LRUFA-OA). In high RUFA experiment (HRUFA), 2% soybean oil was added to the diet fed in the LRUFA experiment. In each experiment, 30 multiparous cows were blocked by parity and predicted transmitting ability for milk yield and were randomly fed 1 of 2 treatment diets from 2 to 13 wk postpartum. In the LRUFA experiment, LRUFA-SA had 2.4 kg/d more dry matter intake (DMI) (P < 0.01), 3.8 kg/d more energy-corrected milk (P < 0.01), and 0.3% units more milk fat percentage (P < 0.01) and 0.2 kg/d more milk fat yield (P < 0.01). Dietary treatments did not affect body weight, energy balance, and energy intake partitioning into milk, maintenance, and body tissues (P > 0.1). In the HRUFA experiment, HRUFA-SA had 1.4 kg/d more DMI (P = 0.03) but similar milk and milk components yields (P > 0.1). HRUFA-SA had a tendency to gain more body weight (P = 0.07) and had more positive energy balance (P = 0.01) and decreased gross feed efficiency (milk yield/DMI) (P = 0.01). Consistently, HRUFA-SA increased intake energy partitioning into body tissues (P = 0.02) and decreased energy partitioning into milk (P = 0.01). In summary, SA supplementation had more DMI relative to OA, but the effects on milk and milk fat production were different and affected by the level of RUFA in the basal diet. In application, SA supplementation was more effective to improve milk production when included in the basal diet with the low RUFA.

Key Words: dairy cows, fatty acids, milk fat, ruminal bio hydrogenation

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Name: Effect of supplementation fat during the last 3 weeks of uterine life and the preweaning period on performance, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, passive immunity and health of the newborn calf

Authors: A. R. Jolazadeh، T. Mohammadabadi, M. Dehghan-banadaky, M. Chaji and M. Garcia


  1. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Technology, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
  2. University of Khuzestan, P.O. Box 63517-73637, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran
  3. Department of Animal Science, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
    3Department of Animal Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing essential fatty acids (FA), during late gestation and the preweaning and
early weaning periods on passive immunity, growth, health, rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites and behaviour of dairy calves.
During the last 3 weeks of pregnancy, cattle (n 120), within parity, were randomly assigned to one of three diets with different fat supplements:
(a) no supplemental fat (CON), (b) supplement rich in linoleic acid (CSO), or (c) supplement rich in EPA and DHA (CFO). Eighty-four newborn
Holstein calves were randomly assigned, within the prepartum diets, to one of two calf starters: no fat supplement (FC-0) or 2 % Ca-salt of
unsaturated FA (FC-2). Overall, the interaction between dam diets and calf starters did not affect calf performance or any other parameter
measured. Calves born from dams fed fat (CSO or CFO) performed better than calves born from dams fed CON. Namely, calves born from dams
fed fat had greater plasma concentrations of IgG (P < 0·01), better apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (P < 0·01) and average daily gain (ADG,
597 v. 558 g/d; P =0·02), and lower rectal temperature (RT; P < 0·01). Calves fed a calf starter rich in unsaturated FA (FC-2) had greater (P ≤ 0·01)
ADG, skeletal growth, feed efficiency, and weaning weight compared with FC-0-fed calves. Furthermore, calves fed FC-2 had lower RT during the
pre- and post-weaning periods (P ≤ 0·04) and fewer days with diarrhoea (P < 0·001) compared with calves fed CF-0. Time spent eating, ruminating,
standing, lying, and on non-nutritive oral behaviour did not differ by treatment. Similarly, treatments did not affect ruminal fermentation parameters.
At 28 and 77 d of age, calves fed CF-2 had higher plasma concentrations of albumin and cholesterol (P ≤ 0·02) and lower urea N compared with
calves fed CF-0. Plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase were higher in calves fed CF-2 compared with those fed CF-0, when they were 77 d
old. These findings support feeding moderate amounts of long-chain PUFA during late uterine life or during the preweaning period have beneficial
effects on calf metabolism, growth, and health performance.

Key Words: Holstein calves: Performance: Fatty acids: Peripartum diet

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