Name: Calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids deliver more essential fatty acids to the lactating dairy cow

Authors: M.L.Theurer*1E.BlockW.K.Sanchez2M.A.McGuire*

Address: *Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow 83844Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition Group, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ 08543

Abstract: Recent research has focused on the importance of supplying essential fatty acids to the lactating dairy cow. The addition of essential fatty acids, specifically linoleic and linolenic acid, to dairy cow diets has been investigated as a method to increase reproductive efficiency. Rumen bacteria, however, biohydrogenate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids. This is an important issue because it can also lead to milk fat depression when unsaturated fatty acids are fed. The formation of Ca salts has previously been shown to partially protect unsaturated fatty acids from rumenbiohydrogenation. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate feed intake, milk production, and milk composition of cows fed Ca salts of palm fatty acids (CS) compared with those fed Ca salts of palm fatty acids with an increased content of PUFA (CS+PUFA). Nineteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a switchback experiment to determine any differences between CS and CS+PUFA on milk production and composition. This experiment consisted of 3 consecutive periods of 14 d. Treatments were formulated to provide 450 g/d (dry matter basis) of the Ca salt supplement and were mixed with the same basal ration. Milk weights and feed intakes were recorded daily for each cow. Milk samples were collected the last 2 d of each period and analyzed for milk composition and fatty acids. Dry matter intake [28.0 vs. 27.0 kg/d; standard error of the mean (SEM) = 0.4] and milk production (44.4 vs. 44.0 kg/d; SEM = 0.7) were not different between treatments for CS and CS+PUFA, respectively. Milk fat percentage (3.34 vs. 3.22%; SEM = 0.07) and milk protein percentage (2.78 vs. 2.80%; SEM = 0.01) were not different for CS- and CS+PUFA-fed cows. Feeding CS+PUFA reduced the concentration of palmitic acid in milk fat (28.3 vs. 26.8 wt%; SEM = 0.3). Supplementation of CS+PUFA increased the linoleic acid concentration (3.96 vs. 4.61 wt%; SEM = 0.1) of milk fat, indicating that linoleic acid was partially protected from rumen bio hydrogenation. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid were also increased (0.44 vs. 0.52 wt%; SEM = 0.02) when cows consumed CS+PUFA, indicating that some bio hydrogenation did occur. Supplementing CS+PUFA did not alter milk production, milk fat percentage, or dry matter intake when compared with CS. The CS+PUFA supplement supplied more linoleic acid to the small intestine for milk fat synthesis.

Key Words: milk; polyunsaturated fatty acid; milk fat; dry matter intake

Download Full Text

Name: Effect of calcium salts of fatty acids on the nutritive value of diets, feeding behavior, and serum blood

Authors: Ludmila Couto Gomes، Claudete Regina Alcalde، Ulysses Cecato،Gracielle Caroline  Mari،Sérgio Mangano de Almeida Santos،Jessyka Guedes Mazziero

Address: 1Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento em Zootecnia, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine effects of the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) to the concentrate on the intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients and the grazing behavior of lactating Saanen goats. Five multiparous goats in their third lactation and four primiparous goats were used. The animals were distributed into two Latin square designs, which, for the multiparous goats was 5 × 5, with five treatments (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, and 6.0% CSFA); and for the primiparous goats was 4 × 4, with four treatments (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% CSFA). The addition of CSFA to the concentrate of lactating Saanen goats did not influence the time spent grazing, ruminating, or lying for multiparous goats. However, for primiparous goats, for the time spent grazing, there was a negative quadratic effect with the addition of CSFA to the concentrate. The treatments did not affect the intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, non-fiber carbohydrates, or total digestible nutrients for multiparous goats. No effects were observed on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein and the ether extract, which increased the energy values of the diets with 3.5% CSFA. For primiparous goats, no effects were observed on intake or digestibility. Addition of CSFA can be used as an alternative to feed primiparous goats in grassland when the grazing time is a factor limiting intake. Addition of up to 3.5% of CSFA increases the energy value of diets for multiparous goats. These results suggest that calcium salts of fatty acids is an alternative energy supplement to feed lactating goats.

Key Words: dairy goats; grazing behavior; n-alkanes; rumen-inert fat; soybean oil; tropical climate

parameters of lactating Saanen goats grazing on stargrass

Download Full Text