Name: Effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids on oocyte quality and follicular development in lactating dairy cows in summer

Authors: T R Bilby 1J BlockB C do AmaralO Sa FilhoF T SilvestreP J HansenC R StaplesW W Thatcher

Address:1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0910, USA.

Abstract: Dietary sources of fatty acids were evaluated for their influence on oocyte quality and follicular development using 54 lactating cows in summer. Fat supplements were 1) sunflower oil (80% cis 18:1), 2) Ca salt of transoctadecenoic acids (57% trans 18:1), 3) Ca salt of vegetable oils (30% 18:2), and 4) linseed oil (56% 18:3 and 16% 18:2). Fats were fed at 1.35% of dietary dry matter beginning at 5 wk prior to expected calving date and at 1.5% (oils) and 1.75% (Ca salts) of dietary dry matter for 15 wk after parturition. Four days following a programmed induced ovulation, 5 transvaginal oocyte aspirations were performed 3 or 4 d apart. Three days after the last aspiration, PGF was injected, followed 3 d later by a GnRH injection and a timed artificial insemination (d 0) 16 to 20 h later. For the first 4 aspirations, oocytes grading 1 or 2 were used for in vitro embryo production. Total cell number and the proportion of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)–positive blastomeres were analyzed at d 8. At the fifth aspiration, the occurrence of metaphase II, group II caspase activity, and TUNEL labeling were determined after oocyte maturation. A total of 1,011 oocytes were collected. The proportion of oocytes with high caspase activity was greater for grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2 (37.5 vs. 1.54 and 1.61%). Feeding polyunsaturated fatty acids, as compared with monosaturated fatty acids, failed to affect oocyte quality, as demonstrated by subsequent embryo development. Cows fed 18:2- or 18:3-enriched diets had a larger preovulatory follicle at insemination and subsequent volume of the corpus luteum compared with those fed cis 18:1 or trans 18:1 diets (16.8, 16.2 vs. 15.0, 14.9 ± 0.7 mm; 7,323, 8,208 vs. 6,033, 5,495 ± 644 mm3, respectively). The previously documented benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids on reproductive performance appear to reflect actions at alternative biological windows in lactating dairy cows.

Key Words: fatty acid, embryo, oocyte, cow

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Name: Effects of differential supplementation of fatty acids during the peripartum and breeding periods of Holstein cows: II. Neutrophil fatty acids and function, and acute phase proteins

Authors: F.T.Silvestre*T.S.M.Carvalho*P.C.CrawfordJ.E.P.Santos*C.R.Staples*T.JenkinsW.W.Thatcher*

Address: *Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, SC 29634

Abstract: The objectives were to evaluate the effects of differential supplementation of Ca salts (CS) of fatty acids (FA) on plasma acute phase proteins and both FA composition and function (i.e., activity and cytokine production) of neutrophils, during the peripartum and breeding periods. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to receive either CS of palm (PO) or safflower (SO) oils from 30 d prepartum until 35 d postpartum (dpp) and CS of PO or fish oil (FO) from 35 to 160 dpp. Supplementation of CS of FA was at 1.5% of dietary dry matter. Cows (n = 32) were sampled three times weekly from parturition to 35 dpp for analyses of plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen. Cows (n = 47) were sampled for neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst activities toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and neutrophil abundances of L-selectin and β2-integrin assessed by flow cytometry at 32 d prepartum, within 7 h after parturition, and 4 and 7 dpp. Profiles of FA in neutrophils and cytokine production (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α, and IL-1β) were assessed prepartum (n = 14), 35 (PO vs. SO; n = 26) and 85 dpp (PO vs. FO; n = 28). Plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen were greater for cows fed SO compared with PO. The percentage of neutrophils with phagocytic and oxidative burst activities was not affected by transition diets, but activities per neutrophil were greater in SO compared with PO diets at 4 (phagocytosis and oxidative burst) and 7 dpp (oxidative burst). Neutrophil abundance of L-selectin, but not β2-integrin, was greater in SO compared with PO at 4 and 7 dpp. Neutrophil productions of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased at 35 dpp in SO compared with PO diets, but production of TNF-α was attenuated in FO compared with PO at 85 dpp. Neutrophil ratios of n-6:n-3 FA were greater at 35 dpp in the SO diet and less at 85 dpp in FO compared with PO diets. In conclusion, cows supplemented with CS of SO had improved innate immunity (i.e., acute phase response and neutrophil function) to better cope with the bacterial challenges in the postpartum period. Conversely, CS of FO attenuated neutrophil cytokine production.

Key Words: dairy cow, fatty acid, neutrophil, acute phase protein

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Name: Effect of fat source differing in fatty acid profile on metabolic parameters, fertilization, and embryo quality in high-producing dairy cows

Authors: R.L.A.Cerri*S.O.Juchem*R.C.Chebel*H.M.Rutigliano*R.G.S.Bruno*K.N.Galvão*W.W.ThatcherJ.E.P.Santos*

Address: *School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Tulare 93274Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611

Abstract: The objectives were to evaluate the effects of source of fatty acids (FA) on embryo quality of dairy cows. A total of 154 Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 sources of FA supplemented at 2% of the dietary dry matter as calcium salts of either palm oil (PO) or linoleic and trans-octadecenoic acids (LTFA) from 25 d prepartum to 80 d in milk (DIM). Cows were presynchronized beginning at 30 ± 3 DIM and then subjected to the Ovsynch protocol beginning on d 39 ± 3 postpartum. Timed artificial insemination was performed 12 h after the final GnRH of the Ovsynch protocol with semen from a single sire of proven fertility. The uteri of cows were nonsurgically flushed at 5 d after artificial insemination for collection of embryos-oocytes. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography throughout the synchronization protocol. Blood was sampled and plasma was analyzed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The body condition score and yields of milk and milk components were measured throughout the first 90 DIM. Treatment did not affect concentrations of nonesterified FA, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and progesterone in plasma. Body condition was similar between treatments. Milk production was similar between treatments, but concentrations of fat in milk and yields of fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased in cows fed LTFA, whereas concentration of true protein increased. Source of dietary FA did not influence ovulatory responses, diameter of the ovulatory follicle, and diameter of the corpus luteum during synchronization. Embryo-oocyte recovery relative to the number of corpora lutea did not differ between treatments. Fertilization tended to increase in cows fed LTFA compared with cows fed PO. Feeding LTFA improved the proportion of excellent-, good-, and fair-quality embryos, and embryos from cows fed LTFA had a greater number of blastomeres than embryos from cows fed PO. Feeding a more unsaturated source of FA improved fertilization and embryo development in lactating dairy cows, despite similar indicators of metabolic status.

Key Words: dairy cow, embryo quality, fatty acid, reproduction

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