Name: Effects of Feeding Fish Meal and n-3 Fatty Acids on Ovarian and Uterine Responses in Early Lactating Dairy Cows

Authors: A.R.Heravi Moussavi*R.O.GilbertT.R.OvertonD.E.BaumanW.R.Butler

Address: *Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad 91775-1163, Iran,Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

Abstract: The study was designed to test the effects of dietary supplementation with fish meal or specific n-3 fatty acids on ovarian activity and uterine responses in early lactating cows. From 5 to 50 d in milk (DIM), cows were fed diets that were isonitrogenous, isoenergetic, and isolipidic containing none (control), 1.25, 2.5, or 5% menhaden fish meal (FM) or 2.3% Ca salts of fish oil fatty acids (CaFOFA). Ovarian follicular dynamics were monitored along with plasma concentrations of estradiol and progesterone. Beginning at 23 DIM, cows were induced into a synchronized ovulatory cycle. On d 15 after ovulation (49 DIM), cows were injected with oxytocin and blood samples were collected to monitor uterine release of PGF۲α (measured as 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto PGF۲α; PGFM). Uterine endometrial biopsies were collected for fatty acid analysis and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein measurement. Ovarian follicular activities as well as plasma estradiol and progesterone concentrations were similar across diets. Endometrial fatty acid composition of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3) were increased as much as 3-fold by supplementation with fish meal and CaFOFA. Conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-۹, trans-۱۱) in the endometrium was also increased; conversely, arachidonic acid (C20:4, n-6) percentage was decreased by 5% FM. Plasma PGFM response to oxytocin injection was not different among diets and endometrial COX-2 protein abundance did not differ. Results from this experiment demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish meal or n-3 fatty acids in early lactating dairy cows significantly increased uterine n-3 fatty acid concentrations, but had no apparent effect on endometrial COX-2 or PGF۲α production in response to oxytocin challenge.

Key Words: cow, fish meal, cyclooxygenase-2 protein, n-3 fatty acids

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Name: Effects of differential supplementation of fatty acids during the peripartum and breeding periods of Holstein cows: II. Neutrophil fatty acids and function, and acute phase proteins

Authors: F.T.Silvestre*T.S.M.Carvalho*P.C.CrawfordJ.E.P.Santos*C.R.Staples*T.JenkinsW.W.Thatcher*

Address: *Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, SC 29634

Abstract: The objectives were to evaluate the effects of differential supplementation of Ca salts (CS) of fatty acids (FA) on plasma acute phase proteins and both FA composition and function (i.e., activity and cytokine production) of neutrophils, during the peripartum and breeding periods. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to receive either CS of palm (PO) or safflower (SO) oils from 30 d prepartum until 35 d postpartum (dpp) and CS of PO or fish oil (FO) from 35 to 160 dpp. Supplementation of CS of FA was at 1.5% of dietary dry matter. Cows (n = ۳۲) were sampled three times weekly from parturition to 35 dpp for analyses of plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen. Cows (n = ۴۷) were sampled for neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst activities toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and neutrophil abundances of L-selectin and β۲-integrin assessed by flow cytometry at 32 d prepartum, within 7 h after parturition, and 4 and 7 dpp. Profiles of FA in neutrophils and cytokine production (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α, and IL-1β) were assessed prepartum (n = ۱۴), ۳۵ (PO vs. SO; n = ۲۶) and 85 dpp (PO vs. FO; n = ۲۸). Plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen were greater for cows fed SO compared with PO. The percentage of neutrophils with phagocytic and oxidative burst activities was not affected by transition diets, but activities per neutrophil were greater in SO compared with PO diets at 4 (phagocytosis and oxidative burst) and 7 dpp (oxidative burst). Neutrophil abundance of L-selectin, but not β۲-integrin, was greater in SO compared with PO at 4 and 7 dpp. Neutrophil productions of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased at 35 dpp in SO compared with PO diets, but production of TNF-α was attenuated in FO compared with PO at 85 dpp. Neutrophil ratios of n-6:n-3 FA were greater at 35 dpp in the SO diet and less at 85 dpp in FO compared with PO diets. In conclusion, cows supplemented with CS of SO had improved innate immunity (i.e., acute phase response and neutrophil function) to better cope with the bacterial challenges in the postpartum period. Conversely, CS of FO attenuated neutrophil cytokine production.

Key Words: dairy cow, fatty acid, neutrophil, acute phase protein

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